Gender and Ultimatum in Pakistan: Revisited

Saima Naeem, Asad Zaman


Razzaque (2009) studied the role of gender in the ultimatum
game by running experiments on students in various cities in Pakistan.
He used standard confirmatory data analysis techniques, which work well
in familiar contexts, where relevant hypotheses of interest are known in
advance. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that exploratory data
analysis is much better suited to the study of experimental data where
the goal is to discover patterns of interest. Our exploratory
re-analysis of the original data set of Razzaque (2009) leads to several
new insights. While we re-confirm the main finding of Razzaque regarding
the greater generosity of males, additional analysis suggests that this
is driven by student subculture in Pakistan, and would not generalise to
the population at large. In addition, we find strong effect of
urbanisation. Our exploratory data analysis also offers considerable
additional insights into the learning process that takes place over the
course of a sequence of games. JEL Classification: C78, C81, C91, J16
Keywords: Ultimatum Game, Gender Differences, Exploratory Data

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